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Essential advice for starting a home aquarium

My granddaughter came to me yesterday and asked me to get her an aquarium. Before I could make such a promise I wanted to investigate what all was involved in setting up a fish tank.

As part of my investigation I decide that I need to review my knowledge and see what new advances the “experts” could teach me about the care of fish. I took my clip board and set out.

One of my first observations was the change in the sources of tropical fish. Years ago when I was keeping tropical fish there were many places to acquire small pets and fish. There was a time when many variety and dry goods stores, also known as five and dimes, had fish. The small stores have been taken over by today’s larger mini-marts, many of which do not have the personnel to care for live animals.

Today, fish can only be obtained from dedicated pet and pet supply stores. Some of these stores have general pet supplies, and a few specialize in fish and aquaria.

I visited three shops in my local area to get a feel for how knowledgeable the employees are. Two of the stores were general pet supply stores and one emphasized the aquarium. In all the shops the employees were eager to assist me, but of course the employee at the specialty store was much more helpful. The specialty shop not only knew about the fish and the equipment that I would need, she was eager to teach me how to set up a tank so that I would become a successful aquarist. Included in her advice was information about the various fish and how to pick fish that would result in a balanced community tank.

Basic items for a home aquarium:

  • Aquarium
  • Aquarium Stand
  • Hood/Light
  • Filter System
  • Filter Media
  • Aquarium Gravel
  • Heater
  • Thermometer
  • Fish Food
  • Supplemental Food
  • Bio-Boost
  • Gravel Cleaner
  • Books
  • Salts and water conditioner

Before any fish are purchased there should be some thought as to where the fish tank will be placed. The location of the tank will influence the size of tank to buy. Fish tanks can be purchased in 2.5 gallons to 150 gallons and larger. Even larger tanks can be special ordered or full wall aquaria can be installed but large fish tanks are probably not for beginners.

One important fact to consider when setting up an aquarium is the weight of a tank once it is set up. The water, aquarium gravel, aquarium hood, a filtration system, and all the cords necessary to operate the accessories could add up to a lot of weight. A five gallon tank set up can have a total weight of 45 lbs or more.   The home aquarist most often purchases a 55 gallon tank. An estimated weight for a 55 gallon fish tank would be about 500 pounds. Five hundred pounds of glass and water will require a very sturdy stable aquarium stand.

The size of the tank will influence the number of fish you should keep. The usual rule of thumb is one fish per gallon of water. This rule can be stretched in either direction depending on the breed of fish you select, and if you have a large fish tank. The larger the adult fish, the fewer fish per gallon. One of the factors that could have an influence on the number of fish kept in one tank is how frequently the tank will be cleaned. A crowded tank will need to be cleaned and filtered more often to prevent the pH of the water from rising too rapidly.

You can also get fish tanks in shapes other than rectangular. If you want to consider an aquarium of a unique shape be aware of the pros and cons. A multi-sided slender tank can add interest in the final effect of a display and show off the fish in a different way. However, it might complicate the cleaning of the tank as well as add expense for special equipment to set it up and to maintain.

Don’t forget that an electrical outlet should be somewhere near the proposed set up site.  Electrical power will be needed to power the filter, heater, and lights. The aquarium hood keeps the tank covered, which helps keep evaporation of the tank water to a minimum, and it also helps protect the fish from jumping out. Some species have a little too much energy for their own good.

Densely-planted tropical fish tank

Densely-planted tropical fish tank. View larger image to spot the happy fish!

Without a doubt a filtration system is essential. The filtration can be done by mechanical, chemical or biological methods, or a combination of these systems. Get as much information about each system before purchasing any system. Be sure you know what will be involved in cleaning or replacing the filter media.

Other pieces of equipment that you will need are a heater, a thermometer, and perhaps books for general information. Some additional items you might want to consider are chemicals such as aquarium salt—to help cure and prevent diseases; water conditioner—to remove chlorine from tap water; a bio-boost—to start the nitrogen cycle; and vitamins and minerals—to add to the general health of the fish.

Optional but recommended items

In for a penny, in for a pound. Now that you have gotten this far, here is another list of items to consider having:

  • Live Plants
  • Background
  • Rocks
  • Driftwood
  • Fish Net
  • Algae Scrubber
  • Ammonia Test Kit
  • Nitrite Test Kit
  • Nitrate Test Kit
  • pH Test Kit

The plants and decorations add interest and help keep fish healthy, and the testing kits are explained below.

How to set up the aquarium

Even new aquaria and equipment should be well rinsed with warm clean water before it is use. If an aquarium background (See article on aquarium backgrounds) is going to be used, it is easier to be placed on the tank before any water or decorations are added in the tank.

The tank should be placed on a level solid base away from direct sunlight. A sturdy aquarium stand is recommended to hold the weight and help prevent the possibility of a pressure crack.  With the tank resting in place, add rinsed aquarium gravel. (If an under gravel filter is used, place it first.)

Start filling the tank with lukewarm water by slowly pouring the water into the tank in such a way that it slides down a side before hitting the bottom of the tank. The purpose of this is to avoid displacing the gravel, and later the aquarium ornaments and filter. When the tank is ½ to 2/3 full, decorations, plants, and possibly the filtration system can be added. The decorations, plants, driftwood, and that sort of thing, adds interest to the look of the tank, but it also provides cover for the fish to hide in. Being able to hide helps the fish be less stressed, and they will live longer.

Continuing to add water with care will eliminate the need of reaching into the tank and repositioning the placements. When the tank is within 2” of the top add aquarium salt and water conditioner. Be sure to consult the package for directions.

Finish hooking up the filtration system. Place the heater and thermometer into the aquarium. (Follow the direction given with the heater.) Continue filling the aquarium with water to 1” of the top. Turn on the filter and heater, let everything cycle for at least 24 hours. Some adjustment to the heater may be necessary to keep the water at the desired temperature for the fish you intent to add. (Tropical fish 76-78 degrees and gold fish 70-72 degrees.)

After the tank has had the proper time to cycle, it is recommended that you test the water for the desired pH level for the fish you want to keep, and make any adjustments as needed. (Some additional information about pH can be found here). It is now, finally, time to add some fish to your tank.

It is recommended, especially for the beginner, to select fish species for their ability to withstand the nitrogen cycle. Some of the recommended fishes are Barbs, Swordtails, Danios, and some Tetras. A knowledgeable pet shop clerk can assist you in making the right selection. The first fish added to the aquarium will help establish a good nitrogen cycle.

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen is the most common element in the atmosphere, and it is essential to all living things. However, most living things cannot get nitrogen out of the air on their own. The organisms that can, mostly bacteria, are called nitrogen-fixing. The cycle starts in your fish tank with the ammonia stage, when the fish give off urine and solid waste into the water. The ammonia would quickly build up in the water to levels that are toxic to fish. Fortunately, we have some helpers in the bacterial world.

Certain bacteria are able to convert the rising ammonia is nitrite, also toxic. But this product is converted with the help of another bacterium into nitrate. Nitrate is in a form that can be used by aquarium plants as a nitrogen food source. So, what the aquarium-keeper must do is to establish this process in the new tank.

Fortunately, the bacteria you need to grow in your tank are everywhere (in the air, water, etc.), but they need time to grow to suitable population levels in your tank to keep the ammonia levels down. This is why it is best to start with a few hardy fish that can tolerate initial rising ammonia levels till the bacteria really kick in. Testing kits can help you determine when this cycle is set up and in balance. Also, you will likely need to change out some of the tank water from time to time as another method of reducing ammonia levels.

This full process should take about 2 or more months, so do not get the most expensive fish right away. You may have some early casualties. With the nitrogen cycle established and the starter fish thriving it is time to add more fish to the tank. The size of the tank will determine the final number of fish. With the final number in mind a mixture if live bearers, schooling fish, catfish and algae eaters can be introduced into the community.

Adding varieties of fish serves more than just adding more fish to the tank. Variety adds to the interest of a tank and each variety can contribute to the health of the tank. As an example the catfish, one for every 5 gallons of water, are bottom feeders and will help consume the food that has fallen to the bottom of the tank. This in turn helps prevent the food from rotting and fouling the waters. The algae eaters, usually one for every 10 gallons, do just as the name implies. They eat algae and helps keep the algae controlled.

A well established aquarium will naturally do a lot to keep itself healthy. It will produce the bacteria that will help keep the nitrogen cycle active. Plants take up the nitrogen and carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. The fish will do their job of eating the bottom foods and eating algae. An aquarist must do his job of providing the final assist, periodic cleaning, and maintenance. But this rewarding hobby will provide you and your family with hours of enjoyment.

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Experiences in setting up a home aquarium
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Snails in an aquarium

There was a time when snails were thought to be necessary to have in a home aquarium. The idea was that the snail would clean up the fish droppings and the snail droppings were good for the plants. The plants in turn would give off oxygen that would help keep the fish healthy.

The reality is that the snails don’t eat the fish dropping, and the snail droppings add to the tank debris. Plants can utilize some of the droppings but the rest must be cleaned up by the filtration system. Plants do give off oxygen during the day, but the fish are not dependent upon that oxygen source if you have a good filter that is aerating the water.

The filtration system in the aquarium cleans up the animal matter and provides the necessary aeration to the fish tank. So what do snails do? They clean up excess fish food that would otherwise foul a tank. They help by eating some of the algae that adhere to the tank walls. They eat on the eggs of the fish, breaking them up but not consuming all of the egg before they move on to the next. Snails will also eat on the plants. Most of them usually do not eat the whole plant. They make holes in the plant, weakening them and disturbing the ambiance of the aquarium décor.

There are hundreds of snail species. The most common snails which are most likely to find their way into the aquarium as a stowaway on plants and live food is the Pond Snail. Most of them are prolific breeders. It is necessary to thin the snail population from time to time or they will consume the tank plants. The easiest way to thin the population is to crush them. Many fishes will eat the crushed snails and benefit from the live food.

Some fish breeders raise snails as a source of fish food. Not only will larger fish eat crushed snails, but the snails will help produce infusoria, a collection of tiny single-celled and multi-celled organisms that very small fish can eat. The Apple snails are a common group used to help start infusoria. The snails eat large quantities of plant material, such as lettuce. They produce a large amount digested waste that is a wonderful source of food for infusoria*.

*The use of infusoria was mentioned in an earlier posting.

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There are many other fun interesting facts here at Boneblogger.

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Experiences in setting up a home aquarium

My aquarium experiences started off as something of an accident. My partner and I were given a 5-gallon fish tank with a simple over the side fiberglass filter. The tank also included a few guppies and mollies.

We set up the tank on a small aquarium stand near our eating area. It turned out that the tank became our mealtime TV. We could watch the fish swim and eat while we ate our evening meal. The slow movement through the water was accented by the mating chase and the territorial disputes. It was exciting the first time we saw a baby fish being born. It was just as moving to see that same baby fish become fish food.

Knowing very little about having an aquarium we also knew very little about how to best keep our newborn fish alive. One store suggested we use a breeding cage. The idea of the breeding cage is to place the mother inside a mesh cage or trap that would permit her to give birth. The babies would fall through the cage openings and the mother would not consume them. As you can easily imagine, this only protected the fry from the birthing mother and not from the other fish. In order for that method to be effective it would require that each mother have a tank of her own until she was finished giving birth. That did not sound like a workable idea for us.

Similar to the cage is a breeding plate. This is a mesh plate that is inserted into a tank slightly above the aquarium gravel. The idea is that the fry can fall below the plate and have a protected area to start their life. We did not like the appearance of the plate and it made cleaning the gravel impossible. For a breeder who wanted to collect young fish and didn’t care how the tank looked this might be a good method of separating newborns from adults.

Another suggestion was to have lots of plants for the fry to be dropped in or near. They could then hide and avoid being eaten by all the bigger fish. This idea at least was workable. In our ignorance we planted the whole bottom of the aquarium in plants. The plants were not properly anchored down and soon we had one of the biggest floating gardens I have ever seen. All we could see was the floating garden, no fish. With a little practice, observation and a bit of advice from knowledgeable shop owners we learned the proper balance of plants to fish and other aquarium ornaments.

Related Post

Essential advice for starting a home aquarium
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